Although the history of Russia goes back for hundreds of years, the roots of modern Russian Federation start after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. Formal democratic institutions and processes were introduced at this time.
Russia adopted a presidential system of government similar to the one in France. The executive, the government branch that enforces the laws, is spit up between the office of the Prime Minister and the President. The Prime Minister is elected by the Russian parliament, the Duma. The President is elected directly by the eligible Russian voters. The President, though, dominates the executive branch.
The legislative, the branch that passes the laws for Russia, is made up of a lower house the Duma and an upper house the Federal Council. The lower house is elected directly by proportional representation. That basically means, each party get the same percentage of seats in parliament as the party gets in the national vote. The members of the Federal Council are not directly elected. Each Russian state appoints two representatives, which make up the council members.
The first presidential election was held in 1991. The first free election to the Duma were held in 1993.
- More detailed information about Russian Presidential Elections.
- More detailed information about Russian Parliamentary Elections.